The rotator cuff serves to stabilize the shoulder joint and assists in raising and rotating your arms. It is made up of tendons and muscles that help keep the shoulder and upper arm bone securely in the socket of the shoulder blade.
Impingement occurs when the bones and tissues in the upper arm are improperly aligned. Conditions such as tendonitis, bursitis and arthritis are all related to impingement. If the rotator cuff is overused or there is a bone deformity, it can become inflamed. This inflaming will cause the space between the shoulder blade and upper arm to narrow. This narrowing will, in turn, cause the rotator cuff to be squeezed or pinched. Once this happens you will feel pain or irritation whenever the shoulder is raised.
A shoulder is considered dislocated when the upper end of the arm bone detaches from the shoulder joint.
Carpal tunnel syndrome consists of a number of symptoms typically in the hand or fingers. These symptoms consist of numbness, tingling, weakness or pain. Carpal tunnel can develop after repetitive hand motions that can, over time, damage muscle and bone in the wrist.
Tennis elbow refers to an inflammation of the tendon that connects the muscles of the forearm, wrist and hand to the upper arm at the elbow. Irritation usually occurs due to overexertion during physical activity.
Sciatica is a condition that comes from an impingement in the sciatic nerve. The sciatic nerve is found in the lower back and runs down the leg, controlling leg muscles. Sciatica can cause pain or numbness/tingling in the leg. This typically stems form a herniated disk or spinal stenosis.
Spinal stenosis occurs when the disks of cartilage that separate the vertebrae in the spine lose water and causes the space between the vertebrae to become smaller. As the space decreases, friction between the bones increases. The spine then becomes unable to stand daily wear and tear with the loss of these shock absorbers. As the disks degenerate the vertebrae may shift and cause the spinal canal to narrow. This will, sometimes, cause the nerves that travel through the spinal column to become squeezed causing leg and back pains or weakness.
This typically refers to back pain that has lasted for longer than three months. It is caused by changes in the intervertebral disks in the spine. After the age of 30, the disks, which were once soft and acted as cushions, begin to erode and lose their density. Their ability to cushion lessens causing an alteration in the position of the vertebrae and, sometimes, a shift in their positions. As the vertebrae shift, they can affect other bones causing nerves to get caught or pinched.
A bulging disk is when the disk that separates the spinal vertebrae is compressed and intrudes into the spinal canal.
A ruptured disk is when the tissue located in the center of the disk is forced outward. Strong pressure on a disk in that condition can force a fragment of the disk to rupture the outer layer of the disk. This is also referred to as a herniated disk.
If the disk fragment moves into the spinal canal and interferes with the spinal nerve it can begin to cause pain. An injured disk in the lower back can cause pain in the lower back, leg or foot whereas the same condition in the neck can produce pain in the shoulder, arm or hand.
Radiculopathy is a condition also refered to as having a “pinched nerve.” It is where the spinal nerve roots have become irritated or compressed. Lumbar nerve impingement is used when the nerve roots in the lower spine are involved whereas cervical radiculopathy refers to the nerve roots in the neck. This is all typically cased by a herniated disk or spinal stenosis.
The ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) and the MCL (medial collateral ligament) are ligaments in the knee that assist in the function of the knee. A torn ACL occurs when the knee is straightened beyond its limitations, twisted or bent side to side. This is very common in sports. A torn MCL will occur when an outside force pushes the knee inward.
A torn meniscus will typically occur when, while the foot is planted firmly on the ground, the knee is twisted. The meniscus is a disk of tough tissue that lies between the upper and lower leg bone.
This is a common ailment among runners caused by stress relating to running on hard surfaces. Pain and swelling in the front of the lower leg are typical signs of shin splints. Shin splints refer to an inflammation of the periosteum, which is a fibrous casing that surrounds the bone.
The Achilles tendon connects the muscles in the lower leg or calf to the heel bone. Every time you move your foot, the Achilles stretches or tightens accordingly. Because they are used so much, it is common for the tendon to tear due to overuse or overexertion. Ruptures usually happen as a result of sudden movements, overstretching, energetic exercise or an untreated case of tendonitis in the Achilles.
A heel spur (a bony growth found on the heel bone) typically occurs when the long ligament found on the bottom of the foot gets inflamed due to a tear usually resulting from stretching. This irritation is usual a result of a walking condition where the walker abnormally twists their foot inward as they walk (pronation).
Plantar Fasciitis is the most familiar cause of heal pain.